Hmmm…..So, Who owns the INTERNET?
Many of you guys must have thought about this once in a lifetime that, Who actually owns the INTERNET. And many of you might know it already. We are going to discuss this whole INTERNET thing in this article.
Sometimes we think that those Internet Service Providers(ISP) or those SIM card companies like T-Mobile, Vodafone, etc. provides us the Internet packages so they are the owners. If not, then who provides them the Internet? ,We pay them and they pay to whom? Who is the highest authority of all? – These are not simple questions but not so hard to answer too. Let’s understand how the hierarchy works?
For instance if you are reading this article on technstuff.in then you are connected to the internet and fetching this all data from some far away located server. Your local ISPs might not have their connection direct to that server and some physical link must be needed to fetch the data from that server(servers may be located in distant countries) still those ISPs charge you with some currencies and lets you visit websites and surf across the internet. How the heck this happened?
ISPs are divided into different categories like
- Tier 1 ISPs
- Tier 2 ISPs
- Tier 3 ISPs
Tier 1 ISPs :
These are those big players in the game we can call them,Those are AT&T, Verizon, NTT, Docomo and many more which have invested loads of money and even spent to establish huge cables deep down in the oceans to connect the world(continents) via internet.
You’d be surprised to know that some are deep down over 25,000 feet below the surface of the ocean and 99% of internet data transmitted through under sea cables. Here are the pictures of the complex network of the under sea cables and the cable itself.
See this is backbone of the internet(And i was thinking everything is in the Air floating around everywhere LOL!).
Tier 2 ISPs :
Now these are mostly national level companies which is wide spreaded across the nation and which has the power of money and consumer to establish their network like T-Mobile, Vodafone all which are popular in the country. They have their reach across the nation with their BTS(Base Transceiver Station) or in other words Mobile towers. They collaborate with these Tier 1 ISPs to further provide internet into the nation.
Tier 3 ISPs :
And at the end these are local mobile companies which has less network spread or which are just small comparatively. But these are the ones which are directly in contact with end users(consumers) and provides them services via physical or wireless connection. Yes, you guessed it right they are collaborated with Tier 2 ISPs.
In short these are the ISPs or companies that you pay to, to avail your data plans.
You may be wondering that how do they collaborate with each other?
Small ISPs, as i told you before have not such a large reach across the nation but still if you are consumer of that ISP’s services you can surf the internet freely anywhere in the nation. That is possible because ISPs makes agreements region wise when the user enters the foreign region he/she will be connected automatically to that foreign region’s ISP. This is called the concept of peering and what user did, that was roaming.
That was about small ISP collaboration, but how about inter tier ISP collaboration?
Basically small ISPs pays money to higher level that is obvious. They request for particular bandwidth or dedicated lease line(kind of internet cable). They are provided with particular amount of internet just like us but theirs is much higher rate of band width. And like that Tier 2 makes some kind of collaboration with Tier 1 club.
Those who are on top of the hierarchy doesn’t pay to anyone. Their expenses are maintaining the cables-monitor them-lay more if needed all those high level duties. So thanks to those giant companies who came up forward and invested in connecting the world with the cables(well their is a huge profit in that too otherwise they wouldn’t have done it).
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